Installing SCCM2012 right out of the box.. while using an SQL2012 database server, will result in the error above. An error in creating a (machine) certificate for the SQL server, see ConfigMgrSetup.log
SCCM2012 and SQL2012 are a supported senario, see http://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/gg682077.aspx#BKMK_SupConfigSQLSrvReq
After some searching on the internet I came accross a blogpost on Microsoft Technet:
I ended up opening a case with Microsoft support myself and this was the fix for my issue. Make sure the service account running your SQL services is in the local administrators group (of that SQL Server) so that it also takes ownership and full control of the directory and that should allow the SCCM install to assign the self-signed certificate via that account. I had followed the PKI guide linked above, although the installation wouldn’t recognize the cert that was in place. The issue was classified as a bug and they are working to fix it in SP1.
Now, if you’re SQL server is a default installation, the service running SQL Server probaly is a “Local or Network” service. Change this in a service account into a Active Directory user with administrator rights on the SQL server. Then restart the service. Now try a re-installation of SCCM 2012.
Best of luck,